Aims: The main aim was to present an overview of the avian geographical distribution patterns in the Mediterranean region during the Quaternary.
Results and Conclusions: For this study seventy-two fossil sites located in the current Mediterranean region and in its peripheral fringe have been analysed. Most of the sites bear avian assemblages rich enough to offer an insight on the main features of local paleornithocaenoses. The approach of the steady Mediterranean refugia is used to explain the avian geographical distribution drawn from the Mediterranean fossil records. As a consequence, we increase the accuracy of our knowledge on the climatic changes during this period.