mtDNA phylogeny of North American Carduelis pinus group

Authors: Antonio ARNAIZ-VILLENA, Valentin RUIZ-DEL VALLE, Juan MOSCOSO, Juan Ignacio SERRANO-VELA and Jorge ZAMORA


Published: Volume 54(1), June 2007. Pages 1-14.

Language: English


Aims: To uncover the genetic relationships within the Carduelis genera of Carduelis dominicensis (Antillean siskin), Carduelis atriceps (black-capped siskin) and Carduelis pinus perplexus (pine siskin perplexus) subspecies, and with North American Carduelis species, particularly Carduelis pinus (pine siskin) and also with Euroasiatic Carduelis spinus (Eurasian siskin).

Location: Males on breeding season were obtained. Antillean siskin was from Pico Duarte (Constanza, Dominican Republic) pine forest, the higher Antillean mountain; Black-capped siskin was obtained from Quetzaltenango (Guatemala highlands); Pine siskin perplexus was from Quetzaltenango (Guatemala highlands); Carduelis pinus was obtained from Dolores (Colorado, USA); and Carduelis spinus was taken from Madrid (Spain).

Methods: Mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt cyt-b) DNA was sequenced. Parsimony and Maximun Likelihood genetic distances based methodologies were used for dendrograms construction.

Results and Conclusions: North American Antillean siskin, black-capped siskin, pine siskin and pine siskin perplexus seem to form a monophyletic group together with their ancestor Eurasian siskin and separated from other North American and South American genus Carduelis species. This group seems to have diverged in the Pliocene Epoch. Antillean siskin is the oldest of this North American group.

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